1. Erasmus
    1. Know as "prince of humanists"
    2. Northern humanist
    3. Large part of life was education
      1. This makes him a humanist
      2. He was a reformer in these fields
      3. Earned a living tutoring when patrons were scarce
        1. Taught students Latin dialogues to help them live well by putting manners and behavior that they should follow in the dialogues
          1. Dialogues where called colloquies
    4. Aspired to unite classical ideals of humanity with Christian ideals of love and piety
    5. Thought classics and bible where road to reform
    6. Summarized belief with phrase Philosophia Christi, a simple, ethical piety in imitation of Christ
    7. Thought people needed original classic documents in original form so they could study them and become better Christians and citizens
      1. Made a Greek version of the new testament in 1516
      2. Translated the Greek version to Latin in 1519
        1. Pissed church off
        2. Church thought their "Vulgate" version which had been accepted for over a thousand years was better
        3. In the mid-16th century all of his works were put on the "Index of Forbidden Books"
    8. Him and Luther didn't get along too great
      1. Didn't like Lutheran practice of overshadowing the old Christian practices
      2. Erasmus received Luther's unqualified condemnation for his views on freedom of human will
  2. Luther (1483-1546)
    1. Educated in Magdeburg by the Brothers of the Common Life who were humanists
    2. In 1510 he went to Rome on business of his order
      1. While there he discovered justifications for his many criticisms of the church
    3. In 1511 he moved to an augustinian monastery in Wittenburg
      1. He got his doctorate in theology there in 1512
      2. Became leader within the monastery, the new university, and the spriritual life in the city
    4. Was plagued by the disproportion between his own sense of sinfulness and the perfect righteousness that medieval theology taught that god required for salvation
      1. He thought no human being could achieve this
      2. Concluded that it was not the person that went to the most religious ceremonies that was put into god's salvation, but the one that truly believed in Jesus Christ who is the only one truly perfect enough for god's salvation
      3. To believe in Christ meant to stand before god clothed in christ's sure righteousness
    5. Was biggie time against the sale of indulgences
      1. Indulgences were originally given only for the sacrifice of fighting in a crusade
      2. During Luther's time indulgences were given for small sums of money (regarded as a good work of almsgiving)
      3. Could be bought for people's own punishments as well as their dead relatives
    6. 95 thesis
      1. on Oct 31, 1517 luther posted his 95 thesis on the door of castle church in wittenburg
      2. protested especially against teztel saying that indulgenses actually releived people and their dead rekatives of sines
    7. luther's excommunication
      1. on june 15, 1520 leo's papal bull exsuge domine condemned luther for heresy and gave him 60 days to retract
      2. final bull of excommunication decet pontificem romanum issued on jan 3 1521
      3. in April 1521 Luther presented his views to Charles V at the diet of worms
      4. Luther didnít recant cause it would be against scripture
      5. on may 26 1521 he was placed on an imperial ban making him an outlaw
      6. from April 1521 to march 1522 he hid in a friends castle, during the time he translated erasmus' new testament to german
  3. Calvin (1509-1564)
    1. During 2nd half of 16th century calvinism replaced lutherism
    2. His family was wealthy and he received benefices at age 12 which financed the best possible education at Parisian colleges and a law degree at Orleans
    3. In spring 1534 he switched to Protestantism
      1. In may 1534 he sold his benefices for a great profit and joined the reformation
    4. Abolished some christian holidays
    5. Believed strongly in morals
    6. Helped form the city of Geneva, a safe haven for protestants
    7. Stricter version of Lutherism
    8. Did not believe in the ornateness of catholic institutions