- Nationalism is loyalty to the nation defined in ethnic terms of a common
language, history, and culture replaced loyalty to dynasties. Nationalists
wanted the boundaries of Europe drawn according to ethnic groups and other
related goals. These were difficult goals to achieve since different ethnic
groups would dispute who had the rights to a certain piece of land. Other
problems would occur when different ethnic groups occupied the same land.
Nationalism was a special threat to the Austrian Empire because it thrived
under a strong monarchy. With strong rulers like Metternich in power, the
Empire ran smoothly and efficiently. The downfall of Metternich came when
power was decentralized and more people had a voice in the Austrian
government. The Burschenschaften was a nationalist movement in Germany that
was eventually dissolved by the Carlsbad decrees.
- In the nineteenth century a liberal was anyone who opposed the
conservatives views. Liberals got most of their ideas from Enlightenment
writers. They wanted legal equality, religious toleration, and the freedom of
the press. They wanted the governments to have limited control over people.
Liberals wanted constitutions and parliaments. Many Nationalists were also
Liberals because of the policies that they wanted instated. Nationalists
sometimes wanted boundaries based on ethnic groups drawn that were against the
conservative boundaries. This made them liberals.